OPTIMIZATION MODELS FOR ALLOCATION OF AIR STRIKE ASSETS WITH PERSISTENCE
Thesis Advisor: Richard E. Rosenthal.
Second Reader: R. Kevin Wood.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Operations Research - Naval Postgraduate School, December 2002
This thesis addresses the critical process of assigning strike aircraft to targets once the targets have been identified: How do we optimally employ available aircraft and weapons on the current set of targets, and how can we modify a previously optimized assignment list to face changes in the tactical situation? Our contribution to the strike-planning problem includes (1) a static allocation model in which each aircraft makes at most one sortie during the planning time horizon, (2) a dynamic model in which each aircraft may make more than one sortie during that horizon, and (3) extensions of these models with persistence incentives, which discourage major plan changes in the results when partial but important changes in the tactical situation necessitate reoptimization. These optimization models are mixed-integer programs that solve in seconds on a personal computer for realistic scenarios with three weapons types, 156 aircraft at seven bases, and 100 potential targets. In a scenario in which two new high-priority targets arise and must be added to an air tasking order with eight original targets, persistence incentives reduce the number of major plan changes from five to two.
Weaver, Paul R., Development and Evaluation of an Automated Decision Aid for Rapid Re-Tasking of Air Strike Assets in Response to Time Sensitive Targets
, Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 2004.
Zacherl, Brian, Weapon-Target Pairing; Revising an Air Tasking Order in Real-Time
, Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 2006.
LIST OF REFERENCES
Abrahams, P., and others, MAAP: the military aircraft allocation planner
, In Evolutionary Computation Proceedings of the IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, IEEE Press, pp. 336-341, 1998.
Balart, R., and others, Decision Aids for Asset-to-Objective Allocation
, Proceedings of Asilomar-29, IEEE, pp. 807-811, 1996.
Brown, G. G., Dell, R. F., and Wood, R. K., Optimization and Persistence
, Interfaces. Vol 27, Number 5. September-October 1997.
Cohen, E. A., Gulf War Air Power Survey (Report in five volumes), U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Crawford, K. R., Enhanced Air Tasking Order Optimization Model
, Masterís Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1994.
Dolan, M. H., Air Tasking Order (ATO) Optimization Model
, Masterís Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1993.
Glenn, F. A. and Bennett, J. M., Decision Aiding Concepts for Air Strike Planning, Analytics, Technical Report 1454-A Submitted to the Office of Naval Research (DTIC Accession Number: ADA 096060), December 1980.
Griggs, B. J., An Air Mission Planning Algorithm for a Theater Level Combat Model
, Masterís Thesis, Graduate School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1994.
Jackson, J. A. Jr., A Taxonomy of Advanced Linear Programming Techniques and the Theater Attack Model, Masterís Thesis, Graduate School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1989.
Joint Publication 3-01.2, Joint Doctrine for Theater Counter Air Operations
, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, April 1986.
Koewler, D. A., An Approach for Tasking Allocated Combat Resources to Targets
, Masterís Thesis, Graduate School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, March 1999.
Kuykendall, S. D., Optimizing Selection of Tomahawk Cruise Missiles
, Masterís Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, March 1998.
Li, V. C., Curry, G. L., and Boyd, E. A., Towards the Real Time Solution of Strike Force Asset
, Working draft (sponsored by the Office of Naval Research), 2002.
McDonnell, J., Gizzi, N. and Louis, S. J., Strike Force Asset Allocation using Genetic Search, Working paper (work supported by National Science Foundation), 2001.
Rosenthal, R. E., Principles of Multiobjective Optimization, Decision Sciences, Vol. 16, 1985, pp. 133-152.
Saling, J. M., Dynamic Re-Tasking: The JFACC and the Airborne Strike Package
, Research Report, Air University, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, April 1999.
United States Air Force Pamphlet 14-210, USAF Intelligence Targeting Guide
, 1 February 1998.
Yost, K. A., Survey and Description of USAF Conventional Munitions Allocation Models, Office of Aerospace Studies, Kirtland AFB, Technical Report OAS TR 95-1, February 1995.
Yost, K. A., The Time Strike Munitions Optimization Model
, Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School, Technical Report NPS-OR-96-001, January 1996.
Washburn, A. R., Notes on Firing Theory
, Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School, Technical Report, May 2002.
Almonte, J. E., Rapid Targeting Triad Against the Mobile Threat: An Evolutionary Concept
, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, 08 February 2000.
Andersen, E. D., and Andersen, K. D., Presolving in Linear Programming
, Mathematical Programming, Vol. 71-2, pp. 221-245, 1995.
Bixby, R. E. , and others, MIP: Theory and Practice Closing the Gap
, in System Modelling and Optimization: Methods, Theory and Applications, Powell, M. J. D., and Scholtes, S., editors, Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp. 19-49, 2000.
Brearley, A. L., Mitra G., and Williams H. P., Analysis of Mathematical Programming Problems Prior to Applying the Simplex Algorithm, Mathematical Programming, Vol. 8, pp. 54-83, 1975.
Brown, G. G., Coulter, D. M., and Washburn, A. R., Sortie Optimization and Munitions Planning
, Report NPSOR-93-011, Naval Postgraduate School, May 1993.
Chan, K. C., and others, Operation Desert Storm: Evaluation of the Air Campaign
, US General Accounting Office, Report GAO/NSIAD-97-134 to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, June 1997.
Chapman, W. G., Organizational Concepts for Sensor-to-Shooter World. The Impact of Real-Time Information on Air Power Targeting
, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, May 1997.
Deale, T. H., On the fields of friendly strike... The Dichotomy of Air Force Doctrine and Training Involving Real-Time Targeting
, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1999.
Frostic, F., Air Campaign Against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations, Project Air Force, RAND, 1994.
Gondzio, J., Presolve Analysis of Linear Programs Prior to Applying an Interior Point Method
, INFORMS Journal on Computing, Vol. 9, Nļ 1, Winter 1994.
Griggs, B. J., Parnell, G. S., and Lemkuhl, L.J., An Air Mission Planning Algorithm Using Decision Analysis and Mixed Integer Programming, Operations Research, 45(5): 662-676, September-October 1997.
Hinton, D. W., A Decision Support System for Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) Combat Planning
, Masterís Thesis, Graduate School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, March 1997.
Jain, V., and Grossmann, I.E., Algorithms for Hybrid MILP/CP Models for a Class of Optimization Problems
, INFORMS Journal of Computing, 13, 258-276, Fall 2001.
Jewell, A., Sortie Generation Capacity of Embarked Airwings
, Center for Naval Analyses, December 1998.
Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, August 2002.
Joint Publication 3-56.1, Command and Control for Joint Air Operations
, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, 14 November 1994.
Joint Publication 3-60, Joint Doctrine for Targeting
, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, 17 January 2002.
Keaney, T. A., and Cohen, E. A., Gulf War Air Power Survey, Summary Report, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Koleszar, G. E., A Description of the Weapon Optimization and Resource Requirements Model (WORRM)
, Report IDA D-2360, Institute for Defense Analysis, August 1999.
Lustig, I. J., and Puget, J. F., Program Does Not Equal Program: Constraint Programming and its Relationship to Mathematical Programming
, Interfaces, Vol 31, No. 6, pp. 29-53, December 2001.
Mandeles, M. D., Hone, T. C., and Terry, S. S., Managing Command and Control in the Persian Gulf War, Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Maros, I., and Khaliq, M. H., Advances in Design and Implementation of Optimization Software
, Imperial College Departmental Technical Report ISSN 1469-4174, London, 2000.
McDonnell, J. P., Apportion or Divert? The JFC'S Dilemma: Asset Availability for Time-Sensitive Targeting
, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, February 2002.
Savelsbergh, M. W. P., Preprocessing and Probing Techniques for Mixed Integer Programming Problems, ORSA Journal on Computing, Vol. 6, No. 4, Fall 1994.
Searle, D., and others, Rapid Targeting and Real-Time Response: The Critical Links for Effective Use of Combined Intelligence Products in Combat Operations
, presented at the 1996 AIAA Missile Science Conference, Monterey, California, 3-5 Dec 1996.
Steuer, R. E., Multiple Criteria Optimization: Theory, Computation, and Application, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1989.
Swietanowski, A., A Modular Presolve Procedure for Large Scale Linear Programming
, Working Paper WP 95-113, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, October 1995.
Thomas, E. C., The Future of All-weather, Rapid Reaction Precision Targeting
, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, April 2000.
Thaler, D. E., and Shlapak, D. A., Perspectives on Theater Air Campaign Planning
, RAND's Project Air Force, 1995.
United States Joint Forces Command, Commander's Handbook for Joint Time-Sensitive Targeting
, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington, DC, 22 March 2002.
Van Hove, J. C., An Integer Program Decomposition Approach to Combat Planning
, Ph. D. Dissertation, Graduate School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, Sep 1998.